Glossary of Terms in 20th Century Spanish Porcelain
- A mark that appears as a colored stamp, usually
applied as a paint "chip" that then opens out as the mark during kiln firing.
- Sometimes used interchangeably with the term "matte"
but more properly reserved to an unglazed porcelain that is completely
white and unpainted
- Sometimes used as a synonym for porcelain, but
porcelain is actually one type among many included in the broader term
"ceramic." Some ceramics are made of a soft and relatively brittle paste.
Not allc eramics, then, are made of porcelain.
- A shiny surface produced by the thin (usually spray-applied)
application of a clear glaze
- A series of Lladró sculptures by Enrique San Isidro
and made of a porcelain formula that is claylike and malleable. It holds the
imprint of the artist's fingers as well as the pattern of whatever textile is
pressed into it as it is being worked.
- A special porcelain formula characterized by matte, usually
earthen-toned colors and having portions colored with enamel paints
"Repose" (#22169) is done in the Gres formula.
First issued in 1987, it is being produced today at a retail price of
$225 USD. Note the earthen-toned colors and the matte skin surfaces,
which are typically also done in darker colors, making this formula especially
well suited to the depiction of ethnic themes. (A larger picture of this
item can be seen on the "Slide Show" page.)(Photo by the author from
her own collection.)
- Flowers applied to fine porcelain. Application is usually made with liquid porcelain or porcelain
glaze so that the adhesive is invisible.
- Hard-paste porcelain
- As distinguished from soft-paste or
semi-porcelain, "hard-paste" (so called for its durability both pre- and
post-manufacture) is also called "true porcelain," the formula for which
was discovered/invented in China centuries ago. The code for this formula
was eventually cracked
by 18th century Meissen chemists in Germany. Its key
ingredients are kaolin clay and petunse stone. Today, Lladró uses
basically the same ancient formula for true porcelain (with a few arcane additions
of its own to the formula) and the same
molding and assembly processes used by Meissen since the 18th century.
- The attribution information on the base of fine porcelain,
typically consisting of manufacturer's name and place of manufacture and some
sort of manufacturer's logo. Marks may be inscribed (etched), embossed (raised),
painted, or stamped. (See "backstamp.")
- Unglazed surface (see also "Bisque")
- A "one-of-a-kind" item that never went into actual
- An item of second-quality merchandise, typically sold by
high-end porcelain manufacturers at the factory of origin and usually indicated
by an alteration of the mark. On Lladró, this would be
the scraping off of the logo flower above the name. A common way to indicate
a second at other porcelain manufactories (including Meissen and Royal
Copenhagen) is through a slash or hash scratched through the mark.
- Porcelain in its liquid form
A Collector's Book of Retired Lladró
by Peggy Whiteneck
Old Line Publishing, LLC
Ever since its founding in the 1950s and its subsequent, stellar rise to global prominence,
collectors have been fascinated with the singular modeling and attention to detail in
Lladró Spanish porcelain figurines. Eventually, collectors discovered that Lladró
wasn't just one brand, but several. At the same time, other companies began to sprout up all
over Spain, particularly around Lladó's own region in Valencia, working
"in the Lladró style" and hoping to catch a ride on the tailwinds of its popularity.
This book is written to acquaint readers with retired figurines in all the Lladró and
Lladró-affiliated brands and to help distinguish them from the work of other Spanish
companies. The book features substantive chapters on the Lladró "core brand,"
NAO by Lladró, Zaphir, Golden Memories, Rosal, and Hispania, complete with
representative photos for each brand.
Retail Price: $29.95
S & H: $5.95
at Amazon.com, Barnes&Noble.com
or through any bookseller by ISBN order #13: 978-0-9845704-6-1.